The last 20 questions directly related to the main styles , management strategies : Questions 41 to 50 are devoted to R- style, and 51 to 60 – M- style. With RM -questionnaire manager can get objective information about its effect on people , can determine your current leadership style , his tendency to trace changes in the direction of effective RM – style , can control the dynamics of their interaction with the group , choosing tools to optimize this interaction.
Application of the method includes the following steps :
1. RM – filling questionnaire team members , led by the head of the lower or middle level .
2 . Holding a training seminar for a group of executives and lower midrange with filling their RM -questionnaire .
3 . Reseed RM questionnaire team members , led by the head of the lower level after 3 months .
4 . Retesting training seminar with leaders . Processing questionnaire produced by calculating the sum of the average values of the two basic factors of RM . The point of intersection factors on the RM – schedule, coordinate axes of which are the RM -norm
Fig . 5.2. Typology of leader behaviors , based on the degree of implementation
two main control functions.
(Source: Juji Misumi (1984) – but Ridasippu Kodo Kagaku ( Behavioral science of leadership ) . Tokyo Yuhikaku )
efficient units of the organization , to determine the style of leadership exercised by the head , as well as the direction and content development. A similar estimate of eight auxiliary factors allows to operationalize those aspects of the head , which require adjustment.
Thus, the method not only allows us to estimate the behavior of a leader in the context of many situational variables , but also acts as part of a special program of organizational development , primarily aimed at adjusting and optimizing the behavior of the leader. Was an adaptation of the hugely successful RM -method in the People’s Republic of China , where it is used with extraordinary success in public and commercial organizational structures .
Situational leadership model F. Fiedler . One of the most famous models of situational leadership is offered F.Fidlerom . In the early 60s F.Fidler and his colleagues concluded that under different conditions are different types of effective leadership. For example, in some situations, a leader , focused on people , enhance the effectiveness of the group improve its morale , increase the general culture of its members. However, in other groups of productivity growth only sought authoritarian, energetic leader , focused on the task.
The study found that it is impossible to predict the change group dynamics based solely on the personal characteristics of the leader, but it is quite possible to do if you know a number of organizational variables. F.Fidler proposed a model in which the effectiveness of the group depends on the optimal match between leadership style and the level of control ( power) , which has a leader in a particular situation . Fiedler developed a questionnaire LPC (Least Preferred Co-worker, ie, ” the ratio of the least preferred of employees “), which defines the basic orientation leader – on people or task . He then highlighted three key situational variables , manipulating that , you can find the best match between the situation and leadership style .
Fiedler’s model is undoubtedly the continuation of structural and behavioral approaches , as his questionnaire – it is quite traditional psychological test aimed at identifying personality and behavioral characteristics of the leader. However, he went far beyond these approaches , highlighting the situational variables and considering the effectiveness of the leader as a function of its interaction with the latter .
LPC questionnaire consists of sixteen scales formed by pairs of adjectives with opposite meanings (eg , pleasant – unpleasant , efficient – inefficient , friendly – hostile , etc.). Under test is proposed to recall one of his subordinates , to which it relates , or treated with the greatest hostility , and evaluate it on these 16 scales , each of which has 8 levels . Fiedler believed that such a test to determine the style of leadership . If the test evaluates positively even less pleasant to him employee , it can be seen as evidence of orientation to the people. Conversely, if bad or negligent employee is negatively valued , it indicates the orientation of the leader to the problem.
Significant limitation Fiedler model is that defined his leadership style questionnaire is strictly dichotomous and fixed . According to him, leadership style characteristic of the individual nature and hardly subject to change depending on the specific situation.
The effectiveness of leadership style by Fiedler , is determined by its compliance with a specific situation in which the key issues are the following three variables :
1. Leader and subordinate relationships , ie degree of trust and respect that workers are experiencing with your manager . This variable indicates how loyal and friendly group takes its leader as it is attractive for the followers .
2 . Structuring of the problem, ie the degree of formality . Structuring of the problem is defined by four characteristics : how representations of the group members in the chosen solution looks right , how well the group understands all requirements for the decision ( clarity problem statement ) what are the restrictions on activities related to the fulfillment of the task ; whether this decision only , or possible alternatives.
3 . Duties power , understood as the ability to manager decisions to punish the subordinates or promotion . It is determined by the amount of power the leader position of leader of the group led to the overall organizational structure , tradition or informally recognized authority leader
These variables are dichotomous : leader and subordinate relationships can be either good or bad , the structure of the problem – complex or simple ; Duties power – strong or weak .
Fidler believes that better relationships with subordinates leader , the higher and stronger structuring tasks Duties power, the higher the degree of management control over the group leader and the more the band is ready to ensure that it led to this situation . Conversely, low levels of these situational variables make the power management control and control group leader minimal. Various combinations of high and low levels of these variables allow us to describe eight different situations that may be faced leader .